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Answers Bayombong

Page history last edited by Ria Kattevilder 12 years, 3 months ago



EFS 1: - Nolimar - Korea

Question:  Do you find it worthy to protect or preserve your culture? Why?



Answer from EFS2 

Yes. Japanese culture is wonderfully rich and splendidly ancient. It does not only reflects the attitudes and concerns of the present but also provides a link to the past. Our country possesses a long and rich cultural history thus we regard our culture as unique compared to others in all other elemets like arts and culture .

Do you find it worthy to protect or preserve your culture? Why? 


Do you find it worthy to protect or preserve your culture? Why?

Yes. Japanese culture is wonderfully rich and splendidly ancient. It does not only reflects the attitudes and concerns of the present but also provides a link to the past. Our country possesses a long and rich cultural history thus we regard our culture as unique compared to others in all other elemets like arts and culture .


Answer from EFS7

Do you find it worthy to protect or preserve your culture? Why?

Hi, pals! How's Korea?

Thank you for the wonderful question.


Yes. I believe our culture is worth-preserving or worth-protecting. The increasing number of younger generation should help preserve the culture and arts of the Chinese community to prevent it from being lost. The Chinese culture should be preserved or protected because of the following reasons:

  1. It identifies us as a people and as a nation.

  2. It helps us trace our history to understand the past, the present and the future. Many historical events that shaped our country are influenced by our culture like the establishment of dynasties.

  3. It explains our way of life- the way we talk, eat, celebrate occasions, dress, etc. Kowtow, for instance, is deeply rooted in our culture. And other people respect us for this.

  4. It is a gift from our ancestors. Just like any gift, it should be cherished and passed on to the next generation.


I am proud of my culture. I will certainly help to preserve it.

Have a great day, friends!


EFS 2: Fe - Japan


What superstistious beliefs do you have in your Country? Mention at least 3 .

-  Are these superstistious beliefs still practiced today?

- What is the impact of these beliefs on your daily life


Answer from EFS1


What superstistious beliefs do you have in your Country? Mention at least 

1.)  Fan Death – This one is a bit of a strange one and one most expats in Korea don’t get at all. Basically if you go to bed with the fan on (especially close to your face) in a room with the windows and door closed you’ll suffocate and die.


2.)  Test Day Superstitions – a) Don’t wash your hair, because everything you studied will be washed away and go down the drain. b) Don’t eat seaweed soup (mi-yuk guk 미역국) because all that knowledge will slip away from eating that slippery seaweed. Eat yut , a kind of Korean toffee that will help to make all that knowledge stick to your brain. c) For the big university entrance exam friends or parents should buy a ring or necklace for the test taker to give them luck so they can pass


3.) Number 4 – This is like the number 13 in Western Culture. You’ll see many elevators that put the letter ‘F’ instead of ’4′. The number 7 is a lucky number in Korea.


Source: Korean Insider: Korean Superstitions @ http://www.koreainsider.com/expat-help/korean-superstitions/


-  Are these superstistious beliefs still practiced today?


Yes, these superstitious beliefs are still practiced today.


- What is the impact of these beliefs on your daily life?


Superstitious beliefs have a great impact in our lives as Koreans.  It creates our own identity in the community and country.  It is a manner for us to clearly identify and reflect where we came from and how important we value life with each other. 

Answer from EFS7


What superstistious beliefs do you have in your Country? Mention at least 3 .

- Are these superstistious beliefs still practiced today?

  • What is the impact of these beliefs on your daily life

  • China is a land of many popular beliefs, customs and superstitions. This is all part of the Chinese life. The following are the three superstitions and beliefs in the Chinese world.

    (1) If one hits another person with a broom, the hitter will get bad luck and he will ruin his life.

    (2) The Chinese believe that one should keep a well-shaven face. If one wears a moustache it should be well-trimmed. If one violates this norm it will give bad luck.

    (3) Another Chinese superstition is that if a dog howls for a few hours in late night, it means someone died somewhere.

  • Yes, these superstistious beliefs are still practiced today.

  • Despite knowing deep down that some superstitions are irrational, we turn to rituals or superstitious notions in particular in times when we fear a change of luck or where there is worry about the future. There are those who will not make a move unless performing a certain ritual. People in sports have been found to have superstitious tendencies, for instance a footballer always putting his shoes on right foot first and then the left or wearing the same socks match after match because those were the ones he was wearing when his team won at the start of the season.

Meanwhile, those who are mildly superstitious aren't likely to see these beliefs having a major impact on their life. However, there are some who might find their superstitions affecting both their own and the lives of the people around them. Paraskevidekatriaphobia for instance is the fear of Friday 13th and some people will take this superstition so seriously that they will refuse to undertake anything that involves risk including travel on the 13th. Decisions like this based on a superstition are bound to affect their everyday routines. They might miss out on a great future opportunity for instance, by refusing to attend an important business meeting or interview just because it's Friday 13th!

Many superstitions that can be linked to the past carry on to have influence today. These include expecting seven years bad luck if a mirror is broken, expecting bad luck if a black cat crosses your path and refusing to walk under ladders.

These superstitious notions seem sometimes to be so ingrained into our belief system that people automatically find themselves looking at a cracked mirror in horror and visualising years of misfortune ahead. Thank goodness common-sense will often prevail and the incident soon forgotten about!


I hope you've learned something from me. Have a great day, pals!


EFS 3: Aireen - Iraq

Question: What are the three most popular festivities in your country?

- Please describe the background/ nature of the festivities

- How do these festivities influence your life?


Answer from EFS1

Question: What are the three most popular festivities in your country?

1. Andong Mask Dance Festival

2.  Pusan International Film Festival 

3.  Seoul Festival of Lights

- Please describe the background/ nature of the festivities

Andong Mask Dance Festival

Date(s): early Oct.

The Andong area has a variety of socio-historical and religious heritages from different periods, from ancient times to the present. Andong also contains the largest number of cultural properties in Korea. The area reveals a very vivid picture of the aesthetics and traditions of the Orient.

Visitors can find not only tangible cultural and historical heritages like ancient villages, but also many intangible cultural properties of the Andong tradition such as Chajeonnori (a "Dadong play" involving hundreds of men working together), Notdaribalgi (a female "Dadong" play), Hwajunssaum, Jeojeonnonmegisori, Naebanggasa, and Haengsangsori. These plays are an amazing spectacle and a unique experienceto be had at the festival.

Date(s): October

Pusan International Film Festival

The Most Productive Film Festival in AsiaPusan International Film Festival (PIFF) has consistently contributed to the vitalizing of Asian film industry through the creation of the pre-market Pusan Promotion Plan (PPP), in addition to Industry Screening that is becoming a pathway to the global market for Asian films including the ones from Korea. This year's edition of PIFF will once again strengthen such productive aspects of the festival and establish itself as a central base for Asian film industry. PIFF is renowned for being the most energetic film festival in the world. At the 5th PIFF, a total of 207 films from 55 nations were invited. Over 3000 guests, including Wim Wenders and Mohsen Makhmalbaf, shined with their presence.

The Seoul Festival of Light is held in five-color themed light zones and is a step up from past festivals that simply relied on sparkly lights and shapes. Here, 'media art' is introduced, the fusion of culture and technology, inviting all citizens to experience a fantastic world of illumination.


for more list of festivals in SOuth Korea, please visit this link:



- How do these festivities influence your life?

These festivities greatly influence our lives as South Koreans.  With these, we were able to prove to other countries and to the whole world how South Koreans appreciate festivals in different and very unique forms.  These festivals also help our economy, our way of living and maintained our solidarity and social responsibility as true South Koreans.

Answer from EFS2


1. The Hina Matsuri or doll festival takes place on March 3rd every year. Its origins go back to China which had the custom of making a doll for the transferral of bad luck and impurities from the person, and then putting the doll in a river and forever ridding oneself of them. March 3rd celebrates Girls' Day in Japan, and from mid to late February families with daughters put out the dolls with the hopes their daughters will grow up healthy and happy. One superstition associated with this is that if they are late in putting away the dolls when the festival is over, their daughters will become old maids. Most displays consist of just a prince, (Odairi-sama) and a princess (Ohina-sama), but more elaborate displays include the dolls being part of a 5 or 7 tier diplay (hinadan), along with courtiers, candy, rice boiled with red beans (osekihan), white sake (shirozake), peach blossoms, diamond shaped rice cake (hishimochi), toys, and tiny furniture. Traditionally many parents or grandparents will begin their first display for their daughter, called hatsu zekku, when she is just a year old, but some families have passed their dolls down from generation to generation with the bride carrying her dolls with her to her new home. Aside from the displays, Japanese used to go view the peach blossoms coming out, drink sake with a blossom in it, and bathe in water with the blossoms. The blossoms represent desirable feminine qualities, including serenity, gentility, and equanimity.


The festival evolved into the form we can see today during the Edo Period (1603-1867), and it is still possible for people to buy Hina Matsuri dolls created during that time as well as the late 19th and early 20th centuries in antique shops during the season. Two areas that come alive with such displays and events like those above is Yoshimura and Yanagawa, both in Fukuoka Prefecture.


2. The Shichi Go San or 7-5-3 Festival is one of the uniquely Japanese festivals. Boys who are 3 and 5 years old, and girls who are 3 and 7 are taken to a shinto shrine, often in their first kimono, and the parents pray for their continuing good health and prosperity. The numbers, especially 3 and 7, are lucky numbers in Japan, and until the 20th century Japan was a thoroughly feudal nation with a higher childhood mortality rate. Since bacterial pathology was then unknown to them they often blamed death on evil spirits, and when the kids became 3, 5, and 7 years old they thanked the gods for their children's good health. A sweet candy called chitose-ame is also often bought for them, in a bag with cranes and turtles, 2 more symbols of long life. Other gifts are also given to them, as you can see some samples like the Japanese animation cat Doraemon.

3. The coming of the cherry blossoms (sakura) is one of the happiest events in Japan. First and foremost it heralds the coming of spring, which is a delight since winters in Japan are bone-chilling cold. They also have a deeper cultural significance since they fall to the ground and disappear in only a couple of weeks (and even sooner if the frequent rains wash them all off the trees), which echoes an ancient cultural belief in the short, transitory nature of youth and life itself. What this means of course is another bout of wild drinking parties under the trees, and karaoke going until the wee hours of the morning. Every city park with lots of sakura trees will be jammed with people, and finding a spot to even sit down may be impossible.

EFS 4: Arlene - India


Which cultural values identify you as a nation

- mention three  and rank them in the order of importance

- describe how these cultural values are put into action in daily life

Answer from EFS1


Which cultural values identify you as a nation

- mention three  and rank them in the order of importance


1.  Familism-entailed Preference for Sons

2.  Sex Discrimination in the Labor Market

3.  The Rule of Politics Over the Rule of Law


- describe how these cultural values are put into action in daily life

Familism-entailed Preference for Sons

Traditionally the principles of Confucian ideology served as the primary influence on the behavior and customs of the Korean family. The male-oriented teachings of Confucianism stress the patriarchal role of men, the importance of family lineage, and the significance of paying homage to ancestors. As such, men predominate over women and sons are preferred over daughters.
Today the importance of sons has diminished, largely due to increasing numbers of people who are educated, experienced in cultural exchanges, and aware of different values. However, Koreans still generally prefer sons over daughters. When a mother gives birth to a son, she feels relief, pride, and joy because she believes that she has fulfilled one of her fundamental duties to her parents-in-law. When a daughter is born, the mother usually feels disappointed and consoles herself with the thought that her daughter can be helpful to her. Nevertheless, many mothers hope for sons the next time, or continue to give birth until they bear sons.


Sex Discrimination in the Labor Market

During the three decades of a rapid economic growth coupled with industrialization since 1960s, the transition from an agrarian society to an industrialized one cannot but rely on the cheap wages and the high productivity of laborers. In the process of industrialization, the masses of people who migrated out of rural areas became the urban poor, forming a large industrial reserve force. These people have been compelled to sacrifice themselves for the sake of national economic development. The trade union rights and the right to strike have been held in check by harsh labor laws and other laws. At times, labor movements have been denounced by the government as pro-communist activities or as acts sympathetic to North Korea. The government's dependence on police power in suppressing the exercise of rights by laborers and low income urban people is one of the important causes of human rights infringements in South Korea.


The Rule of Politics Over the Rule of Law

Another impeding factor or difficulty in implementing the international covenants on human rights and protecting human rights is the weakness of the normative power of the Constitution. In theory, the Constitution is the supreme law of the state and sets the highest standard for the merit and validity of government measures and laws. However, since its first proclamation in 1948, the Constitution has been unable to preserve its dignity as the supreme law. As has been amended nine times so far, all of these amendments were centered on the questions of the method of electing the President, the lengths of the terms, and the structure of the state power. All the constitutional amendments, except for those of 1960 and the present Constitution in 1987, were aimed at extending the term of office of the incumbent president or at providing ex post facto justifications of the military coup d'etat (1961 and 1980). Because of this history, the Constitution has come to be regarded as something that can be changed for the maintenance of power of the president or ruling party.





Answer from EFS2

The Japanese are extremely polite, so much so that they avoid speaking frankly, believing it discourteous. Most Japanese avoid a direct statement that might offend others -(an excerpted from Culture Briefing: Japan)

Harmony - Japanese believe very strongly in avoiding confrontation. They use compramise and conciliation. They believe in collective responsibility for decissions as well as results. They will not often tell their true feelings in order to maintain harmony.

Answer from EFS3

Three cultural values that are important to us Muslims are practice of religion (Islam), family and honour and hospitality.

1. Practice of Religion

Islam prescribes our way of life and it governs political, legal, and social behaviour. It organises our daily life and provides moral guidance for both our society and the individual. Because of our adherence to our religious rituals, we have survived the challenges of living to the morals according to Allah's will.

We gather at the mosque every Friday for afternoon prayer with our families. We pray five times a day, at dawn, before noon, at noon, before sunset and at dusk. We observe the Ramadan which entails a month of fasting from all food, drink, and activities such as smoking and sexual intercourse during daylight hours. At night the fast is broken, and on the first day of the tenth month there is a celebration, Id al Fitr, to acknowledge the end of the fast. During Id al Adha, on the tenth day of the twelfth month, there is a sacrificial festival. Both this and the one following Ramadan last for three or four days, and people dress up, visit each other, exchange gifts, and also visit cemeteries.


2. Family and Honour

Iraqis consider family and honour to be of paramount importance. The extended family or tribe is both a political and social force. Families hold their members responsible for their conduct, since any wrongdoing brings shame to the entire family. Loyalty to the family comes before other social relationships, even business.

Nepotism is not viewed negatively. In our culture, it naturally makes more sense to offer jobs to family as they are trusted.

It is common for large extended families to live in the same house, compound, or village. In urban areas, families do not necessarily live in the same house, although they generally live in the same street or suburb at least.


3. Hospitality

Hospitality is an Arab and Muslim tradition deeply engrained in our culture. Visitors are treated as kings and must always be fed and looked after. Our Islam tradition provides that someone is allowed to stay in our home for 3 days before you can question why they are staying and when they will leave. Invitations to a home must be seen as a great honour and never turned down.

The culture of hospitality means Iraqis like to invite people to their homes. If you are invited to an Iraqi home:

  • Check to see if you should remove shoes.

  • Dress conservatively and smartly.

  • Do not discuss business.

  • Iraqi table manners are relatively formal.

  • If the meal is on the floor, sit cross-legged or kneel on one knee. Never let your feet touch the food mat.

  • Use the right hand for eating and drinking.

  • It is considered polite to leave some food on your plate when you have finished eating.

EFS 5: Erwin - Cambodia

Main Question: What is the opinions in your class on same-sex marriage versus traditional marriage?

Sub Questions:
1. How are same sex couples treated in your community
2. How does religion looks towards same-sex marriage?

Answer from EFS3

In most Muslim countries like ours, being homosexual is illegal. This may sound horrible but in our country gay people are being murdered--often by their own families -- for being who they are.

All of us in the class do not agree to same sex marriage. But of course, murdering people for being homosexual is another issue. We adhere to the traditional marriage customs that we have been raised to.

In the laws of Islam, marriage is sacred. It is a tradition that binds not just the couples but the clan and the community as well. We do practice a long engagement process which involves all the family members. For those who could financially afford, expensive wedding are done with the bride adorned and offered much gold and prepared with 5-7 bridal clothes.

Instead of same sex marriage, we are more known for cousin marriage. Cousin marriage occurs because a woman who marries into another clan potentially threatens its unity. If a husband's bond to his wife trumped his solidarity with his brothers, the couple might take their property and leave the larger group, weakening the clan. This potential threat is avoided by cousin marriage: instead of marrying a woman from another lineage, a man marries the daughter of his father's brother – his cousin. In this scenario, his wife is not an alien, but a trusted member of his own kin group. Wives are also bound tightly to their clan because their in-laws are not strangers but aunts and uncles who have a strong interest in supporting their marriages. (The risk that cousins' offspring will suffer genetic anomalies is somewhat mitigated by genetic benefits too complex to discuss here.)

There is one issue however that beset our marriage traditions here in Iraq-the 1,400-year-old practice of muta'a— "ecstasy" in Arabic — is as old as Islam itself. It was permitted by the prophet Mohammed as a way to ensure a respectable means of income for widowed women.

Pleasure marriages were outlawed under Saddam Hussein but have begun to flourish again. The contracts, lasting anywhere from one hour to 10 years, generally stipulate that the man will pay the woman in exchange for sexual intimacy. Now some Iraqi clerics and women's rights activists are complaining that the contracts have become less a mechanism for taking care of widows than an outlet for male sexual desires.

Answer from EFS4

Main Question: What is the opinions in your class on same-sex marriage versus traditional marriage?

Answer: Traditionally, Hindu parents look for a prospective match for their son/daughter from their own community also known as arranged marriage. Elders in the family and parents seek the prospective match through word of mouth within the community. Nowadays inter caste marriage is becoming more popular. Inter caste marriage is term used in South Asia and Middle-Eastern countries for a marriage where the couple are from two different social groups, e.g. different races, clans or castes. It is related to exogamy, where marriage is allowed only outside of a social group, and opposed to endogamy, arranged marriage and forced marriage.

Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage), on the other hand, is marriage between two persons of the same biological sex or social gender.

Homosexuality is generally considered a taboo subject by both Indian civil society and the government. Public discussion of homosexuality in India has been inhibited by the fact that sexuality in any form is rarely discussed openly. In recent years, however, attitudes towards homosexuality have shifted slightly. In particular, there have been more depictions and discussions of homosexuality in the Indian news media

Sub Questions:
1. How are same sex couples treated in your community

Answer: Same sex issue is still a debatable issue here in our country. Despite being engaged in a legal battle to have homosexuality depenalized, India offers foreign gay couples the chance to become parents.  "The Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR) in 2002 allowed Indian clinics to treat same-sex couples with donor egg IVF and surrogacy."

Continue reading at http://www.nowpublic.com/world/india-hot-spot-gay-couples-keen-babies#ixzz1f3y82zlt

2. How does religion looks towards same-sex marriage?


Religion has played a role in shaping Indian customs and traditions. While homosexuality has not been explicitly mentioned in the religious texts central to Hinduism, the largest religion in India, Hinduism has taken various positions, ranging from positive to neutral or antagonistic. Rigveda, one of the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism says Vikruti Evam Prakriti (what seems un-natural is also natural), which some scholars believe recognises the cyclical constancy of homosexual/transsexual dimensions of human life , like all forms of universal diversities. Historical literary evidence indicates that homosexuality has been prevalent across the Indian subcontinent throughout history, and that homosexuals were not necessarily considered inferior in any way.

EFS 6: Essel - Tailand


How has modernization affected the survival of cultural values in modern society?

Sub Question:
1. mention and rank 3 values that disappeared

2. mention and rank 3 values that survived

Answer from EFS5

How has modernization affected the survival of cultural values in modern society?

As of this era, as a Khmer, our value systems were influenced by several cultural traditions: Khmer, Indian and French, and originated from two distinct religions: Brahmanism and Theravada Buddhism. It represents a set of values based on system of classes and hierarchy where respect and deference between people of superior and inferior ranks must be observed. The influence from Theravada Buddhism includes religious detachment from worldly affairs and individual responsibility for status in life. It also emphasizes the avoidance of causing suffering, self-discipline, humility and harmonious relations with others. The French culture has left its marks on our government and educational system. However its influence only penetrated in urban areas. We, Khmer, believe that individuals should adhere to the Buddhist code of personal conduct. The group or community (seen as extended families) is more important than the individual, as are ancestors and rulers. The individual's good conduct and services to the community will gain him respect from others and in turn, he may be awarded with a high position within the religious, governmental or community organizations. Despite several modernizations took place in our country, the old Khmer culture is still pervasive.


Sub Question:1. Mention and rank 3 values that disappeared

Cambodian culture subscribes to the notion that a child's life is never really their own, whereas the American culture stresses the fostering of independence in a child and recognizes an adult child's capability to make a decision.


A second aspect of the differing customs involves the treatment of the elderly. For Cambodians, the adult children and other family members cared for elderly parents traditionally; public assistance was usually not called upon. For Cambodian parents, a child becomes a means of security in the sense that they will act as caretakers when the parents are ill and reach old age. In addition, they function as the "protector" in all aspects of life, ensuring that the health, happiness, and economic well being of the parents are safeguarded. It is at this juncture where we see an apparent role reversal in the Cambodian culture: the parent becomes dependent on the child.


Another area of dissonance lies in the marked different definitions of success and achievement for the two cultures. The typical American outlook is one which embraces the idea that achievement is for personal gain. This meaning differs quite substantially from the Cambodian viewpoint that accomplishment is more of a public display for their parents.


2. Mention and rank 3 values that survived

Power distance. Cambodia has a predominantly high power distance orientation. This means that we tend to accept an unequal sharing of power. Members of a certain society tolerate inequality in power distribution compared to some western countries. 


Individualism-collectivism.We Cambodians are predominantly collectivist in nature. As such, we tend to emphasize group identity within which loyalty to the group and group consensus are valued and harmony may be more important to the truth.




This cultural factor refers to how much a society sticks with, and values, traditional male and female roles. High MAS scores are found in countries where men are expected to be tough, to be the provider, to be assertive and to be strong. If women work outside the home, they have separate professions from men.




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